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Apple Adds ‘BlastDoor’ to Secure iPhones From Zero-Click Attacks

Apple has quietly added several anti-exploit mitigations into its flagship mobile operating system in what appears to be a specific response to zero-click iMessage attacks observed in the wild.

Apple has quietly added several anti-exploit mitigations into its flagship mobile operating system in what appears to be a specific response to zero-click iMessage attacks observed in the wild.

The new mitigations were discovered by Samuel Groß, a Google Project Zero security researcher who specializes in remote iPhone exploitation and zero-click attacks against mobile messaging systems.

Apple did not document the changes but Groß said he fiddled around with the newest iOS 14 and found that Apple shipped a “significant refactoring of iMessage processing” that severely cripples the usual ways exploits are chained together for zero-click attacks.

Groß notes that memory corruption based zero-click exploits typically require exploitation of multiple vulnerabilities to create exploit chains.  In most observed attacks, these could include a memory corruption vulnerability, reachable without user interaction and ideally without triggering any user notifications; a way to break ASLR remotely; a way to turn the vulnerability into remote code execution;; and a way to break out of any sandbox, typically by exploiting a separate vulnerability in another operating system component (e.g. a userspace service or the kernel).

With iOS 14, Groß discovered that Apple shipped a significant refactoring of iMessage processing, and made all four parts of an attack much harder to succeed. 

The first big addition is a new, tightly sandboxed “BlastDoor” service that is now responsible for the parsing of untrusted data in iMessages.

Separately, Apple added logic into iOS 14 to specifically detect [shared cache region] attacks and new techniques to limit an attacker’s ability to retry exploits or brute force Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR).

The mitigations, Groß said, made all four parts of a typical zero-click attack harder and he commended Apple for responding to the work of offense-focused hackers to respond to documented in-the-wild attacks.

“Overall, these changes are probably very close to the best that could’ve been done given the need for backwards compatibility, and they should have a significant impact on the security of iMessage and the platform as a whole,” the Google researcher added.

Related: iOS Exploit Allows ‘Unfettered Access’ to iPhone User Data Over Wi-Fi

RelatedGoogle Researchers Detail Critical iMessage Vulnerability

Related: Apple Ships Emergency Fixes for Under-Attack iOS Zero-Day

Written By

Ryan Naraine is Editor-at-Large at SecurityWeek and host of the popular Security Conversations podcast series. He is a security community engagement expert who has built programs at major global brands, including Intel Corp., Bishop Fox and GReAT. Ryan is a founding-director of the Security Tinkerers non-profit, an advisor to early-stage entrepreneurs, and a regular speaker at security conferences around the world.

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