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Malware & Threats

Petya-Based PetrWrap Ransomware Emerges

A newly observed ransomware family is leveraging the well-known Petya ransomware to encrypt user data, but modifies the malware “on the fly” to control its execution, Kaspersky Lab researchers discovered.

A newly observed ransomware family is leveraging the well-known Petya ransomware to encrypt user data, but modifies the malware “on the fly” to control its execution, Kaspersky Lab researchers discovered.

Petya emerged in March last year, when it caught researchers’ attention because it could manipulate the Master Boot Record (MBR) to take over the machine, instead of encrypting users’ files, as other ransomware does. Soon, Petya teamed with another threat, the Mischa ransomware, and together they evolved into a Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS).

Dubbed PetrWrap (Trojan-Ransom.Win32.PetrWrap), the new ransomware uses Petya for its nefarious purposes, but isn’t based on the RaaS. The malware is being distributed manually: the actors behind it target an organization’s network, compromise it, then use the legitimate PsExec tool to install the ransomware on all endpoints and servers.

Written in C and compiled in Microsoft Visual Studio, the new malware packs a special module that allows it to use a sample of the Petya ransomware v3 to infect the target machines, but also to modify the code of Petya in runtime to control its execution. The threat also features its own cryptographic routines, Kaspersky’s Anton Ivanov and Fedor Sinitsyn explain.

After launch, PetrWrap delays its execution for one hour and a half, after which it decrypts the main DLL of Petya from its data section and prepares to call its exported function ZuWQdweafdsg345312. Petya uses this function to get ready for the next operations and to start the MBR overwrite process. Because it needs to hook a couple of Petya’s functions first, PetrWrap prevents the malware from proceeding on its own.

Next, the malware makes the necessary cryptographic computations, hooks two Petya procedures, and then passes the execution to Petya. PetrWrap completely replaces the ECDH part of Petya with an independent implementation, which allows it to use its own private and public keys. The ransomware comes with an embedded public key, generates a pair of session keys for each infection, computes ecdh_shared_digest, intercepts Petya’s salsa key and encrypts it using ecdh_shared_digest, constructs a user_id, and then passes the ID to Petya, which uses it as if it was its own data.

PetrWrap hooks two of Petya’s procedures and replaces them with its own procedures, which allows it to save the salsa key generated by Petya for further use; patch the Petya bootloader code and ransom text; pass execution to the original procedure; call the original procedure; generate the user_id; and replace Petya’s id string with this newly generated user_id.

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All these changes allow PetrWrap to lock the victim’s machine and securely encrypt the MFT of NTFS partitions and to show a lockscreen that has no mention of Petya (it also lacks the flashing skull animation). Moreover, the approach allows PetraWrap developers to encrypt the bootloader without having to write their own code.

Because this family of ransomware uses a strong encryption algorithm, there’s no free decryption tool available to help victims. According to Kaspersky, however, victims can try restoring their files using third-party tools such as R-Studio.

“Targeted attacks on organizations with the main aim of encrypting data are becoming more popular. The groups using ransomware in their targeted attacks usually try to find vulnerable servers or servers with unprotected RDP access. After penetrating an organization’s network they use special frameworks like Mimikatz to obtain the necessary credentials for installing ransomware throughout the network,” Kaspersky concludes.

Related: Petya Variant Goldeneye Emerges

Written By

Ionut Arghire is an international correspondent for SecurityWeek.

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