The issuance of SSL/TLS (Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security) certificates is expected to become a more secure process this September, after the implementation of mandatory Certificate Authority Authorization (CAA) checks.
After Certificate Authorities (CAs) and browser makers voted last month to make CAA checking mandatory, the new standard will be implemented starting September 8, 2017, according to Ballot 187 on the CA/Browser Forum site. Starting then, all CAs will have to check CAA records at issuance time for all certificates, which should prevent them from issuing certificates if not permitted to.
CAA is a DNS Resource Record that “allows a DNS domain name holder to specify one or more Certification Authorities (CAs) authorized to issue certificates for that domain and, by implication, that no other CAs are authorized.”
Domain owners will be able to set an issuance policy that all publicly-trusted CAs should comply with, thus preventing CAs from wrongfully issuing HTTPS certificates. This new standard should also mitigate the issue that “the public CA trust system is only as strong as its weakest CA,” Ballot 187 also reveals.
CAs will have to check “for a CAA record for each dNSName in the subjectAltName extension of the certificate to be issued.” This standard, however, doesn’t prevent CAs to check CAA records at any other time.
Apparently, CAA checking isn’t required in specific scenarios, such as for “certificates for which a Certificate Transparency pre-certificate was created and logged in at least two public logs, and for which CAA was checked.”
If the CA or an Affiliate of the CA is the DNS Operator of the domain’s DNS, CAA checking becomes optional, the same as “for certificates issued by a Technically Constrained Subordinate CA Certificate as set out in Baseline Requirements section 7.1.5, where the lack of CAA checking is an explicit contractual provision in the contract with the Applicant.”
CAs are also required to document potential issuances that were prevented by the CAA, and should also send reports of the requests to the contact(s) stipulated in the CAA iodef record(s), if present.
17 out of 19 voting CAs (94%) voted in favor of the new CAA standard. All three participating browser makers (Mozilla, Google, and Apple) voted in favor.