Connect with us

Hi, what are you looking for?



Fuzzing Tests Show ICS Protocols Least Mature

Fuzzing tests conducted last year by customers of Synopsys, a company that provides tools and services for designing chips and electronic systems, revealed that protocols used in industrial control systems (ICS) are the least mature.

Fuzzing tests conducted last year by customers of Synopsys, a company that provides tools and services for designing chips and electronic systems, revealed that protocols used in industrial control systems (ICS) are the least mature.

Fuzzing is a testing technique designed for finding software vulnerabilities by sending malformed input to the targeted application. If the software crashes or behaves unexpectedly, it could indicate the presence of a security flaw and further investigation is warranted. If the number of crashes is high and the time to first failure (TTFF) is short, the likelihood of exploitable vulnerabilities increases.

Synopsys’ State of Fuzzing 2017 report is based on 4.8 billion results obtained in 2016 from tests targeting 250 protocols used in industrial, Internet of Things (IoT), automotive, financial services, government, healthcare and other sectors.

In the case of ICS, Synopsys customers tested protocols such as IEC-61850 MMS, IEC-104 Server, Modbus PLC, OPC UA, DNP3 and MQTT. There are also some protocols used for both ICS and IoT, including CIP and CoAP Server.

Many of these protocols had the TTFF within five minutes. Modbus, for instance, had 37 failures after 1.5 million tests and an average test runtime of 16 minutes. The OPC UA protocol had over 16,000 failures with a testing runtime of 4.5 hours.

ICS protocols fuzzing results

In comparison, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which is used to convert an IP address into a physical address and is the most mature protocol, had zero failures after over 340,000 tests with an average runtime of 30 hours.

Four of the five least mature protocols, based on average TTFF, are ICS protocols, including IEC-61850 MMS, Modbus PLC, DNP3 and MQTT.

“The protocols typically associated with ICS showed the most immaturity,” Synopsys said in its report. “Many demonstrated rapid time to first failures, with IEC-61850 MMS measured in a matter of seconds. This has bearing on IoT, as many of the protocols used in ICS are also used in IoT. Clearly, more testing is needed for the protocols within ICS and IoT, as the potential for discovering more vulnerabilities is greater in these industry verticals than in others.”

Advertisement. Scroll to continue reading.

The most mature protocols, based on tests conducted by Synopsys customers, are Bluetooth LE Health, DHCPv4 Client, Bluetooth LE, ARP Client, PNG and E-LMI – each with 0 failures.

Related: Synopsys to Acquire Coverity for $375 Million

Related: Many High-Impact Flaws Discovered Using Fuzzers

Related: Google Launches OSS-Fuzz Open Source Fuzzing Service

Written By

Eduard Kovacs (@EduardKovacs) is a managing editor at SecurityWeek. He worked as a high school IT teacher for two years before starting a career in journalism as Softpedia’s security news reporter. Eduard holds a bachelor’s degree in industrial informatics and a master’s degree in computer techniques applied in electrical engineering.

Click to comment

Daily Briefing Newsletter

Subscribe to the SecurityWeek Email Briefing to stay informed on the latest threats, trends, and technology, along with insightful columns from industry experts.

Join us as we delve into the transformative potential of AI, predictive ChatGPT-like tools and automation to detect and defend against cyberattacks.


As cybersecurity breaches and incidents escalate, the cyber insurance ecosystem is undergoing rapid and transformational change.


Expert Insights

Related Content

Application Security

Cycode, a startup that provides solutions for protecting software source code, emerged from stealth mode on Tuesday with $4.6 million in seed funding.


Less than a week after announcing that it would suspended service indefinitely due to a conflict with an (at the time) unnamed security researcher...

Identity & Access

Zero trust is not a replacement for identity and access management (IAM), but is the extension of IAM principles from people to everyone and...

CISO Strategy

SecurityWeek spoke with more than 300 cybersecurity experts to see what is bubbling beneath the surface, and examine how those evolving threats will present...

CISO Conversations

Joanna Burkey, CISO at HP, and Kevin Cross, CISO at Dell, discuss how the role of a CISO is different for a multinational corporation...

Data Breaches

OpenAI has confirmed a ChatGPT data breach on the same day a security firm reported seeing the use of a component affected by an...

CISO Conversations

In this issue of CISO Conversations we talk to two CISOs about solving the CISO/CIO conflict by combining the roles under one person.

Risk Management

The supply chain threat is directly linked to attack surface management, but the supply chain must be known and understood before it can be...