Researchers have uncovered serious denial-of-service (DoS) and improper access control vulnerabilities in X-ray devices made by Japanese imaging giant Fujifilm.
The flaws, described in an advisory published this week by ICS-CERT, affect Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) XC-2 and Capsula X medical imaging products (CR-IR 357) — Capsula products are marketed as Carbon in the United States. The impacted devices are used in the healthcare sector worldwide.
According to ICS-CERT, these systems are impacted by a high-severity vulnerability that allows an attacker to cause a DoS condition that requires a manual reboot of the device (CVE-2019-10948), and a critical flaw related to the lack of authentication mechanisms for Telnet services (CVE-2019-10950). The second bug can be exploited to access the underlying operating system and possibly gain complete control of a vulnerable device.
Marc Ruef and Rocco Gagliardi, researchers at Swiss-based cybersecurity firm Scip AG, have been credited for finding these flaws.
Ruef told SecurityWeek that the vulnerable devices are typically not connected to the internet and exploitation requires access to the local network. Attacks can be launched by hospital employees, patients or visitors, but attacks over the internet may also be possible by compromising another device on the network and through social engineering (i.e., user interaction is required).
The vulnerabilities were discovered during a penetration testing project conducted by Scip for a hospital. Vulnerabilities in other medical products were discovered as part of the same project, including ultrasound devices and DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) servers, but no details have been made public due to the fact that the impacted vendors are still investigating the findings.
“The [publicly disclosed] details are very limited because addressing issues in medical devices at customer sites usually takes a very long time. We do not want to give attackers too much details to prevent them from exploiting the issues as long as most customers are exposed,” Ruef explained.
It appears that Fujifilm has not released firmware updates to patch these vulnerabilities and instead has advised users to enable Secure Host functionality on the devices. This feature blocks out all network traffic, except for traffic coming from the IP address associated with the Fujifilm image acquisition console. Customers have also been advised to secure their networks, including through segmentation and by ensuring that only authorized devices and users are granted access.
Ruef said that while the use of the Secure Host functionality can mitigate the risk, attacks may still be possible if the attacker can spoof or compromise the image acquisition console.
The researcher noted that Fujifilm was informed of the vulnerabilities on February 8, but the vendor only started addressing the issues after ICS-CERT was notified by Scip.
Related: Flaws in Roche Medical Devices Can Put Patients at Risk
Related: Critical Flaws Expose Natus Medical Devices to Remote Attacks
Related: Philips Working on Patches for 35 Flaws in Healthcare Product