Researchers disclosed this week the details of two new attack methods allowing malicious actors to gain access to sensitive information stored in a device’s memory by exploiting security holes in Intel, AMD and ARM processors.
The attacks, known as Spectre and Meltdown, have already been addressed by several vendors, including Microsoft, Apple and Google, and Intel and others are also working on rolling out patches.
Billions of PCs, mobile devices and cloud instances are vulnerable to attacks leveraging the Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities, and some fear we will soon witness remote exploitation attempts.
Industry professionals have commented on various aspects of Meltdown and Spectre, including their impact, what users and organizations need to do, and the lessons that can be learned.
And the feedback begins…
Sam Curry, Chief Security Officer, Cybereason:
“The recent revelation of a major chip design security flaw is quite technical and gets to the underlying architecture and interface of physical memory and virtual memory, which is a big part of all practical, modern computing. It’s important to note that no one is immune by default to this chip design flaw and that it may impact a wider set of chips and manufacturers over time. In trying to find ways of improving overall security in memory management, researchers have uncovered a very long running set of flaws that could mean the ability to exploit a lot of systems very deeply.
This is so fundamental that it’s likely they knew about the flaw, so it’s going to be important to watch how they handle the situation and how the narrative and history unfold. The chip vendors are playing this calmly, but this is likely the calm before the storm. It’s too early to point fingers yet, but eyes are on the entire chip industry now. Also in spite of the early attention on Intel, this class of threats effects other chip sets. Now is the time for everyone in the chip game to take care of their own business. No excuses.”
Michael Daly, CTO, Cybersecurity & Special Missions, Raytheon:
“The Intel vulnerability reinforces the need for everyone to stay on top of the latest patches. We learned that hard lesson with the Wannacry attack that quickly spread to 150 countries.
In this case, the most immediate and significant risk exists in the cloud services provider environments and in private data centers. The threat seems to be the grabbing of passwords/hash-values and encryption keys from memory and then using these to install additional malware.
Until these systems can all be patched, it will be even more important to watch for unauthorized processes (applications) and other evidence of tampering, such as increased processor usage and file drops. When the patches are issued, their deployment should be prioritized because criminals and nation-state adversaries apparently have had a couple of months head start.”
Ryan Kalember, SVP, Cybersecurity Strategy, Proofpoint:
“Like most organizations, chip manufacturers have long prioritized speed over security—and that has led to a tremendous amount of sensitive data placed at risk of unauthorized access via Meltdown and Spectre. While the vast majority of computing devices are impacted by these flaws, the sky is not falling. Both vulnerabilities require an attacker to be able to run their code on the device they are attacking. The typical consumer is still vastly more likely to be targeted by something like a phishing email than a targeted attack exploiting Meltdown or Spectre. However, these vulnerabilities break down some of the most fundamental barriers computers use to keep data safe, so cloud providers need to act quickly to ensure that unauthorized access, which would be very difficult to detect, does not occur.
If there is some good news, it’s fortunate that these vulnerabilities were discovered and responsibly disclosed by respected researchers as opposed to being exploited in a large scale, potentially-damaging global attack.”
Bryce Boland, Asia Pacific Chief Technology Officer, FireEye:
“Vulnerabilities like this are extremely problematic because they permeate so much of the technology around us that we all rely upon. Resolving this issue will take time and incur costs. In many cases, this cost includes security risks, rectification effort and even computing performance.
These vulnerabilities can have big implications. Many services can be exposed and affected. Hardware vendors will address the underlying design issue, though vulnerable systems will likely remain in operation for decades. In the meantime, software vendors are releasing patches to prevent attackers from exploiting these vulnerabilities. This will also impact system performance which may have a cumulative effect in data centers for anyone using cloud services and the internet.
Large organizations will need to make a risk management decision as to how quickly they update their systems, as this can be disruptive and costly.
We are yet to understand the full impact of this development, and not all details are available. At this stage, exploitable code is not publicly available. Nation state hackers typically use these types of vulnerabilities to develop new attack tools, and that’s likely in this case.”
Christian Vezina, Chief Information Security Officer, VASCO Data Security:
“What I find interesting is that with the ever increasing amount of software code of out there, security researchers are still discovering 20+ years old vulnerabilities. Unfortunately the processor level vulnerabilities that have been published recently seem to indicate a trend: Everyone drop what you are doing and start patching your systems [again].”
Ben Carr, Vice President of Strategy, Cyberbit:
“Vulnerabilities like Meltdown only highlight the breadth of the potential issue we face no matter the investment. Meltdown potentially affects Intel processors going back to 1995. While many are rushing to find a f
ix after the disclosure, one must admit that this is why nation state actors don’t really have to try that hard to find a way in. At its core, it just isn’t that difficult.
In the cybersecurity industry, we must realize that we have maxed out on our ability to lock down systems and networks. It has become critical that we look to ways not only to prevent but to defend.”
Michael Lines, VP of strategy, risk and compliance, Optiv:
“The Meltdown and Spectre security flaws are affecting billions of devices, but the fundamental challenges that organizations face remain the same as every other major vulnerability that has been announced. Fixing these security flaws is going to be a long-term issue to resolve because, one, patches are needed across a vast array of operating systems, and two, patches for Spectre are still to be developed and released.
These widespread vulnerabilities underscore the importance of having ongoing risk assessment processes in place, as well as well-oiled TVM processes – both as part of a robust information security program. Risk assessment should cover both awareness and management of the issue at the board and C-suite level. These flaws are going to bring a lot of ‘doom and gloom,’ but organizations’ ability to react in an efficient and predictable way is what is most critical. Don’t panic, prepare a rational plan based on patch availability and system sensitivity, execute your plan, and monitor progress.”
Prof. Yehuda Lindell, chief scientist and co-founder, Dyadic:
“The important take-away from these attacks is very simple – computation leaks secrets! There has been a huge body of work showing that secret cryptographic keys and private information can be stolen by running software on the same machine and utilizing the properties of modern complex processors that don’t provide true separation between processes. In the past it has been shown how the machine’s cache and even clock can be used by one process to steal secrets from another. Meltdown and Spectre go a step further by utilizing the way that modern processors achieve speedups through something called “speculative execution”.
As a result, if you are computing on private information or carrying out cryptographic operations on a machine, and an attacker can run code on the same machine, then you are not safe. This includes the case that an attacker breaches your network, but is primarily of relevance in cloud environments where by definition different customers run their applications on the same machine.”
Jeff Tang, Senior Security Researcher, Cylance:
“The biggest impact is for companies relying on shared computing resources in the cloud – such as virtual private servers, virtual machines, and containers – which place them at higher risk of an attacker employing these new techniques to extract secrets (passwords, encryption keys, and other sensitive data). Administrators should check with their hosting provider to determine the appropriate steps to deploy mitigations which may include applying software updates and rebooting the virtual machine.
Administrators should prioritize patch testing and validation of the newly released Microsoft security update and deploy them to shared workstations and hypervisor based systems which are at higher risk of being targeted by attackers hoping to maximize their impact.”
Joseph Carson, Chief Security Scientist, Thycotic:
“The latest Intel, ARM and AMD chip security flaw is a major issue for multiple reasons, the security risk has the potential for simple code running in a web browser. This could allow for a cybercriminal to access sensitive data in protected memory which could include passwords, login keys or sensitive data that is typically protected. The patch of such a flaw is a major challenge as a firmware update typically requires a reboot so for servers running critical systems, this results in unplanned downtime. With the fix having a potential performance impact of up to 30%, this means critical systems already running at full power could require costly upgrades to ensure operational stability.
With these cyber risks, it means that most companies will approach patching systems with extreme caution as many companies still prioritise business operations over security issues. The impact for many companies not having the systems operational is sometimes greater than the risk of a cyberattack but cyberattacks do not come cheap either as seen with cyberattacks like WannaCry and NotPetya in 2017 costing some companies up to 300 million USD. The systems at higher risk are those that are internet connected, meaning they are easily accessible by cybercriminals and those systems used by employees, who regularly use them for browsing the internet, so these systems should be the priority for any organisation that takes cybersecurity seriously.”