Connect with us

Hi, what are you looking for?


Malware & Threats

ESET Analyzes Complex Espionage Platform Used by “Animal Farm” APT

Researchers at security firm ESET have conducted a detailed analysis of Dino, a sophisticated espionage platform developed and used by the APT actor known as “Animal Farm.”

Researchers at security firm ESET have conducted a detailed analysis of Dino, a sophisticated espionage platform developed and used by the APT actor known as “Animal Farm.”

The existence of malware used by Animal Farm came to light in March 2014 when a French publication released some slides leaked by Edward Snowden. The slides, belonging to Canada’s Communications Security Establishment (CSE), describe a campaign dubbed “Operation Snowglobe.”

The document shows some of the tools used in the campaign and a list of targeted organizations. It also notes that the group behind the operation is likely backed by a French intelligence agency.

Since the slides were published, several security firms obtained malware samples with capabilities and code similar to what CSE described in its document.

Over the past months, experts at ESET, Cyphort and G DATA have published papers on Babar, EvilBunny (Bunny), and Casper. In addition, the list of malware families used by Animal Farm also includes NBot, Tafacalou (TFC / Transporter) and Dino.

According to a report published today by ESET, Dino is a sophisticated backdoor that uses different modules to carry out its tasks. Its main goal appears to be the theft of files from infected systems. The sample analyzed by ESET was used in 2013 to target organizations in Iran.

ESET researcher Joan Calvet, who has been analyzing the Animal Farm for several months, has pointed out in a blog post that the name Dino might be referring to the pet dinosaur from the animated television series “The Flintstones.” It’s worth noting that experts believe the name Babar might be inspired by a fictional elephant from a French children’s book, while the name Casper could stem from the animated cartoon series “Casper the Friendly Ghost.”

The security firm says it hasn’t determined Dino’s initial infection vector, but it believes the threat is installed by another program. In a blog post on the Animal Farm APT published in March, Kaspersky Lab noted that Tafacalou acts as an entry point for the group’s more sophisticated spy platforms Babar and Dino.

Advertisement. Scroll to continue reading.

Once it infects a system, Dino can be commanded to retrieve system information from the infected machine, execute Windows batch commands, search for specific files, upload files to the command and control (C&C) server, and download files from the C&C. The malware operators can also schedule commands to be executed at a specified time, and they can uninstall the threat from the system by leaving only few traces of its existence.

Experts have uncovered several pieces of shared code that show a clear connection between Dino and other threats from the Animal Farm malware families. In addition, Dino also provides more evidence that the developers of these malware families are French speakers.

The language identifier present in more recent Animal Farm malware, such as the reconnaissance tool Casper, has been set to English. However, in the case of Dino, the value of the language code is 1036, which corresponds to French. It’s worth noting that the compiler automatically sets this identifier to the language of the developer’s machine unless a code is manually set.

Calvet has pointed out that while it is possible that the French language code was set as a false flag, a more likely scenario is that the developers forgot to change the value of the language identifier when they created Dino.

Another piece of evidence suggesting that Dino developers speak French is a file path that contains the word “arithmetique,” which is French for “arithmetic.”

Researchers have highlighted that while Dino appears to have been created by professional and experienced developers, they haven’t put much effort into anti-analysis features, like the ones found in other Animal Farm threats such as Casper.

Written By

Eduard Kovacs (@EduardKovacs) is a managing editor at SecurityWeek. He worked as a high school IT teacher for two years before starting a career in journalism as Softpedia’s security news reporter. Eduard holds a bachelor’s degree in industrial informatics and a master’s degree in computer techniques applied in electrical engineering.

Click to comment

Daily Briefing Newsletter

Subscribe to the SecurityWeek Email Briefing to stay informed on the latest threats, trends, and technology, along with insightful columns from industry experts.

Join us as we delve into the transformative potential of AI, predictive ChatGPT-like tools and automation to detect and defend against cyberattacks.


As cybersecurity breaches and incidents escalate, the cyber insurance ecosystem is undergoing rapid and transformational change.


Expert Insights

Related Content


The changing nature of what we still generally call ransomware will continue through 2023, driven by three primary conditions.


A recently disclosed vBulletin vulnerability, which had a zero-day status for roughly two days last week, was exploited in a hacker attack targeting the...

Malware & Threats

The NSA and FBI warn that a Chinese state-sponsored APT called BlackTech is hacking into network edge devices and using firmware implants to silently...


No one combatting cybercrime knows everything, but everyone in the battle has some intelligence to contribute to the larger knowledge base.

Application Security

Virtualization technology giant VMware on Tuesday shipped urgent updates to fix a trio of security problems in multiple software products, including a virtual machine...

Malware & Threats

Unpatched and unprotected VMware ESXi servers worldwide have been targeted in a ransomware attack exploiting a vulnerability patched in 2021.


The recent ransomware attack targeting Rackspace was conducted by a cybercrime group named Play using a new exploitation method, the cloud company revealed this...

Malware & Threats

Threat actors are increasingly abusing Microsoft OneNote documents to deliver malware in both targeted and spray-and-pray campaigns.